5 October 2012 Last updated at 13:10 GMT Help
Catalonia, one of Spain’s richest regions, is having a serious bout of secessionist fever, and this time it might just happen.
Catalan nationalists, emboldened by the Madrid government’s refusal to dole out extra money for the region last month, have ratcheted up calls for independence.
Members of the Catalonian parliament accuse the government of “fiscal looting”, and have now voted overwhelmingly for a referendum on leaving Spain. So, could the region really say adios to Spain?
Newsnight’s Paul Mason reports from Barcelona.